Tectonolinament framework of the Black Sea region and the surrounding areas

  • Vladimir Pokalyuk State Institution "The Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9282-0246
  • Igor Lomakin State Scientific Institution "Center for Problems of Marine Geology, Geoecology and Sedimentary Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2745-2579
  • Valentyn Verkhovtsev State Institution "The Institute of Environmental Geochemistry of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1015-6725
  • Vladimir Kochelab State Scientific Institution "Center for Problems of Marine Geology, Geoecology and Sedimentary Ore Formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine", Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4888-9297
Keywords: Mediterranean mobile belt, Black Sea basin, tectonic lineaments, SRTM, GEBCO, planetary fault network, structural framework, fault-block tectonics

Abstract

Modern high-precision global digital 3-d models of the relief of the continents and the ocean floor (SRTM, GEBCO) are the objective basis to clarify the structure and features of the organization of the planetary fault network of of the Black Sea region and adjacent areas of the Mediterranean mobile belt and surrounding platform areas, to find out the location of the main transregional supermegalineaments forming the deep structural-tectonic framework of the territory.
A complete consistency of the structural plan of faults and fault zones within the sea areas and continental surroundings is established. The structural position of the Black Sea basin as a whole is determined by its location at the intersection area (superposition, interference) of the diagonal (subdiagonal) transcontinental tectonolinament belts: the north-west – Elba-Zagros, Caucasus-Kopetdag, and the north-east – Atlas- Black Sea. The absence of large-scale lateral displacements at the intersection nodes of differently oriented supermegalineament systems indicates the relative autonomous stationarity and inheritance of the formation of the lyneament framework during the entire Mezozoic-Cenozoic and relatively low-shear nature of its implementation. This feature of the Black Sea region structural pattern significantly limits the possibility of using neomobilistic geodynamic models to explain the history of the geological development of the region. The strict consistency and orderliness of the lineament framework can be ensured only by global planetary factors associated with the influence of the rotational regime of the Earth's shells on the stress distribution in the lithosphere.

References

Aizberg, R. E., Garetsky, R. G., Sinichka, A. M. (1971). Sarmatian-Turanian lineament of the earth's crust. In Problems of theoretical and regional tectonics. Moscow: Nauka. 41—51. (in Russian).

Afanasyeva, N. S., Bush, V. A., Kats, Ya. G., Kiryukhin, L. G., Makhin, G. V., Ryabukhin, A. G., Sborshchikov, I. M., Trofimov, D. M., Faradzhev, V. A. (1980). Features of the structure of the Mediterranean belt according to the interpretation of satellite images. In Tectonics of the Mediterranean Belt. Moscow: Nauka. 123—132 (in Russian)

Barka, A. and Reilinger, R. (1997). Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data. Annali Di Geofisica. 40. 587—610.

Biter, M., Malita, Zina, Diaconescu, M., Radulescu, F., Nacu, V. (1998). Crustal movement and earyhquakes distribution in Dobrudja and Black Sea. Geo-Eco-Marina. 3. 109—117.

Boccaletti, M., Dainelli, P. (1982). Schema tettonico dell´area Mediterranea. Con i principali elementi strutturali neogenico-quaternari (campo regmatico dedotto dall´analisi delle immagini Landsat). Firenze.

Bogdanov, N. A., Koronovskiy, N. V., Lomize, M. G., Chekhovich, V. D., Yutsis, V. V. (1994). Tectonic map of the Mediterranean Sea. 1: 5 000 000. Moscow: Cartographyia.

Bonchev, E. S. (1971). Problems of Bulgarian geotectonics. Sofia. (in Bulgarian).

Burton, P. W., Xu, Y., Tselentis, G., Sokos, E., Aspinall, W. (2003) Strong ground acceleration seismic hazard in Greece and neighboring regions. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 23. 159—181.

Bush, V. A. (1983a). Systems of transcontinental lineaments of Eurasia. Geotektonika. 3. 15—31. (in Russian).

Bush, V. A. (1983b). Transcontinental lineaments and problems of mobilism. Geotektonika. 4. 14—25. (in Russian).

Bush, V.A., Kats, Ya. G. (1978). Tectonic regionalization of the Mediterranean alpine belt based on the results of interpretation of satellite images. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 10. 74—79. (in Russian).

Chebanenko, I. I., Dovgal, Yu. I., Znamenskaya, T. A., Klochko, V. P., Kudryavtseva, M. N., Potapchuk, I. S., Radzivil, V. Ya., Slezak, O. I., Tokovenko, V. S., Tripolskaya, M. I., Verkhovtsev, V. G., Shatalov, N. N. (1988). Tectonics of the Northern Black Sea Region. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. (in Russian).

Chekunov, A. V. (1972). The structure of the earth's crust and tectonics of the south of the European part of the USSR. Kiev: Naukova dumka. (in Russian).

Chekunov, A. V. (1987). Problems of the Black Sea Basin. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal. 4 (9). 3—25. (in Russian).

Cosmotectonic map of the European countries - members of the CMEA and the SFRY. (1987). Sc. 1: 1 000 000. Ch. ed. N. V. Mezhelovsky. CMEA.

Dobrev, T. B., Shchukin, Yu. K. (1970). Deep faults of the Western Black Sea region and some geophysical signs of their identification. Sovetskaya geologiya. 11. 76—89. (in Russian).

Esat, K., Civgin, B., Kayrak, B., Isik, V., Ecevitoglu, B., Sevitoglu, G. (2014). The 2005—2007 Bala (Ankara, central Turkey) earthquakes: a case study for strike-slip fault terminations. Geologica Acta. 12 (1). 71—85.

Evsyukov, Y. D. (2007). Danube fan: geomorphological characteristics; bedding of Upper Quaternary sediments (based on echo sounding data). Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 4. 109—116. (in Russian).

Fodor, L., Jelen, B., Márton, E., Škaberne, D., Čar, J. & Vrabec, M. (1998). Miocene—Pliocene tectonic evolution of the Slovenian Periadriatic fault: Implications for Alpine-Carpathian extrusion models. Tectonics. 17. 690—709. URL: https://doi.org/10.1029/98TC01605.

Georgiev, G. (2012). Geology and Hydrocarbon Systems in the Western Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences (Turkish J. Earth Sci.). 21. 723—754.

Gerdjikov, I., Georgiev, N. (2006). Maritsa fault system — a strike-slip zone along the northern margin of the Rhodopes. Annual of the University of mining and geology “St. Ivan Rilski. 49. Part I. Geology and Geophysics. 33—39.

Goncharov, V. P., Neprochnov, Yu. P., Neprochnova, A. F. (1972). Bottom relief and deep structure of the Black Sea basin. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).

Goryachev, A. V. (1986). Deep faults and structural inhomogeneities of the earth's crust. In Inhomogeneity of the tectonosphere and the development of the earth's crust. Moscow: Nedra. 32—48 (in Russian)

Grecula, P., Varga, I. (1979). Main discontinuity belts on the inner side of the West Carpathians. Miner Slov. 14. 221—240 (in Slovakian with English summary)

Haas, J. (ed.). (2001). Geology of Hungary. Budapest: Eotvos University Press.

Haas, J., Mioč, P., Pamić, J., Tomljenović, B., Árkai, P., Bérczi-Makk, A., Koroknai, B., Kovács, S. & Rálisch-Felgenhauer, E. (2000). Complex structural pattern of the Alpine-Dinaridic-Pannonian triple junction. Int. J. Earth Sci.. Abstr. 89. 377—389.

International tectonic map of Europe. Third edition. (1996). Scale: 1: 5,000,000. Editors: V. Ye. Khain, Yu. G. Leonov. Geological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Commission of the Geological Map of the World, UNESCO.

International tectonic map of the World. (1981). Scale: 1:15 000 000. Ch. ed. V. E. Khain. USSR Academy of Sciences.

Ivanov, V. E., Lomakin, I. E. (2014). Geological position and tectonics of the Lomonosov paleovolcanic massif and the Foros bulge. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 2. 35—51. (in Russian).

Kats, Ya. G., Makarova, N. V., Kozlov, V.V., Trofimov, D. N. (1981). Structural-geomorphological analysis of the Crimea on the interpretation of satellite images. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 3. 8—20 (in Russian)

Kats, Ya. G., Poletaev, A. I. (1983). Lineamentous tectonics of the Alpine mountain-fold frame of the East European platform. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 3. 3—13. (in Russian).

Kats, Ya. G., Poletaev, A. I., Rumyantseva, E. F. (1986). Fundamentals of lineament tectonics. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).

Khain, V. E. (1973). General geotectonics. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).

Khain, V. E. (1977). Regional geotectonics. Extra-Alpine Europe and Western Asia. Moscow: Nedra (in Russian)

Khain, V. E. (1984). Regional geotectonics. Alpine Mediterranean belt. Moscow: Nedra. V. 1. (in Russian)

Khain, V. E. (2001). Tectonics of continents and oceans. Moscow: Nauchnyy mir. (in Russian).

Kilias, A. A., Tranos, M. D., Papadimitriou, E. E. & Karakostas, V. G. (2008).The recent crustal deformation of the Hellenic orogen in Central Greece; the Kremasta and Sperchios Fault Systems and their relationship with the adjacent large structural features. Z. dt. Ges. Geowiss. 159 (3). 533—547. Stuttgart

Kopp, M. L. (1997). Structures of lateral squeezing in the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. Trudy geologicheskogo instituta Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. 506. Moscow: Scientific world. (in Russian).

Kopp, M. L., Rastsvetaev, L. M. (1976). About the lineaments revealed from satellite images of the eastern part of the Alpine belt. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 11. 26—35. (in Russian).

Korchuganova, N. I. (2006). Aerospace Methods in Geology. Moscow: GEOS (in Russian)

Kornev, O. S. (1982). Anomalies and structures of the Azov-Black Sea region. Geotektonika. 3. 86—97 (in Russian)

Koukouvelas, I. K. and Aydin, A. (2002). Fault structure and related basins of the North Aegean Sea and its surroundings. Tectonics. 21 (5). 1—16. Doi:10.1029/2001TC901037.

Krasnoshchek, A. Ya. (1989). Spatial features of activation of deep faults in the western part of the Black Sea. Geologicheskiy zhurnal. 1. 84—88. (in Russian).

Krasnoshchok, A. Ya. (1976). Systems of faults of the basement and their relationship with sedimentary cover structures within the Northern Black Sea region. Geologichnyy zhurnal. 5 (36). 10—17. (in Ukrainian).

Leonov, Yu. G., Volozh, Yu. A., Antipov, M. P., Bykadorov, V. A., Kheraskova, T. N. (2010). Consolidated crust of the Caspian region: experience of regionalization. Trudy geologicheskogo instituta Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. 593. Moscow: GEOS. (in Russian).

Lomakin, I. E., Pokalyuk, V. V., Kochelab, V. V. (2019). Karpinsky lineament — a structural element of the ancient regmatogenic fault network of Eurasia. Geokhimiya tekhnogeneza. 2 (30). 5—17 (in Russian)

Lomakin, I. E., Pokalyuk, V. V., Kochelab, V. V., Shafranskaya, N. V., Shuraev, I. N. (2016). Regularities of spatial orientation of topolineament systems of the Northern Black Sea region. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 4. 86—102. (in Russian).

Lomakin, I. E., Pokalyuk, V. V., Kochelab, V. V., Shuraev, I. N. (2018). Azov-Adriatic megalineament — a transregional zone of conjugate deep faults in southern Europe. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 2. 29—47. (in Russian).

Lomakin, I. E., Pokalyuk, V.V., Shuraev, S. N., Shpyrko, S. G. (2017). Tectonolineament zones of east-north-east trending and selected problems of mediterranean tectonics. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 2. 68—76 (in Russian)

Malovitskiy, Ya. P., Uglov, B. D., Osipov, G. V. (1969). Geomagnetic field of the Black Sea depression. Geofizicheskiy sbornik. 32. 28—38. (in Russian).

Map of discontinuities and main zones of lineaments in the south-west of the USSR (using space survey materials), scale 1: 1,000,000. (1988). Editor N. A. Krylov. Kiev: Ministry of Geology of the Ukrainian SSR (in Russian)

Marinin, A. V. (2003). Late Alpine structure of the North-West Caucasus and tectodynamic conditions of its formation. Author's abstract. Cand. diss. Publishing house of Moscow State University. (in Russian).

Matev. K. (2011). GPS constrains on current tectonics of southwest Bulgaria, northern Greece and Albania. Thesis, Doctor of university of Grenoble.

Meghraoui, M., Pondrelli, S. (2012). Active faulting and transpression tectonics along the plate boundary in North Africa. Annals of Geophysics. 55. 5. 955—967. Doi: 10.4401/ag-4970.

Mikhailov, A. E., Korchuganova, N. I., Baranov, Yu. B. (1993). Remote sensing methods in geology. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).

Morgunov, Yu. G., Kalinin, A. V., Kalinin, V. V., Kuprin, P. N., Limonov, A. F., Pivovarov, B. L., Shcherbakov, F. A. (1981). Tectonics and history of the development of the northwestern shelf of the Black Sea. Moscow: Nauka. (in Russian).

Morosanu, I. (1996). Tectonic setting of the Romanian offshore area at the pre-Albian level. In Oil and Gas in Alpidic Thrustbelts and Basins of Central and Eastern Europe. EAGE Special Publication. 5. 315—323.

Nikishin, A. M., Okay, A., Tüysüz, O., Demirer, A., Wannier, M., Amelin, N., Petrov, E. (2014). The Black Sea basins structure and history: New model based on new deep penetration regional seismic data. Part 2: Tectonic history and paleogeography. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 30. 1—15.

Panov, B. S. (1988). Geological features and minerageny of the Karpinsky lineament. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 9. 11—20 (in Russian)

Patina, I. S., Leonov, Yu. G., Volozh, Yu. A., Kopp, M. L., Antipov, M. P. (2017). The Crimean-Kopetdag zone of concentrated orogenic deformations as a transregional late collisional right-hand strike-slip fault. Geotektonika. 4. 17—30. (in Russian).

Pokalyuk, V. V., Lomakin, I. E., Verkhovtsev, V. G. (2020). Baltic-Iranian Super Lineament — the global Trans-Eurasian belt of dislocations and planetary megafractures. XIV International Scientific Conference: Мonitoring of Geological Processes and Ecological Condition of the Environment. Кyiv. EAGE. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202056008.

Pokalyuk, V. V., Lomakin, I. E., Shuraev, I. N. (2018). Tectonolineament zones of east-north-east trending as constituent element of rhegmatogenic fault network of the Balkan-Black sea region. Ukrainian Journal of Remote Sensing. 18. 40—52. DOI: 10.36023/ujrs.2018.18.134 (in Russian)

Pokalyuk, V. V., Lomakin, I. E., Verkhovtsev, V. G. (2020). Baltic-Iranian super lineament — a long-lived Trans-Eurasian belt of dislocations and planetary megafractures. Kosmichna nauka i tekhnolohiya. 26. 5 (126). 48—72. https://doi.org/10.15407/knit2020.05.000. (in Ukrainian).

Rastsvetaev, L. M. (1980). Natural structural pattern of the earth's surface and its dynamic interpretation. In Problems of the global correlation of geological phenomena. Moscow: Nauka. 145—216. (in Russian).

Rastsvetaev, L. M. (1987), Identification of paragenetic families of tectonic disjunctives as a method of paleogeomechanical analysis of stress and deformation fields of the earth's crust. In Stress and strain fields in the earth's crust. Moscow: Nauka. 171—181 (in Russian)

Rastsvetaev, L. M., Marinin, A. V. (2010). Late Alpine structure and geodynamics of the North-West Caucasus and adjacent regions. Materials of the XVI International Conference: Structure, Properties, Dynamics and Minerageny of the Lithosphere of the East European Platform. Part 2. Voronezh: Nauchnaya kniga. 160—164. (in Russian).

Rastsvetaev, L. M., Tveritinova, T. Yu. (2016). Rotation of the Earth and planetary zones of cleavage, compression and extension. Materials of the Fourth Tectonophysical Conference. Section 5. General theoretical questions of tectonophysics and problems of geodynamics. Moscow: IPE RAS, Volume 2. 545—552. (in Russian).

Robinson, A. G. (Ed.). (1997). Regional and petroleum geology of the Black Sea and surrounding region. Memoir 68. American Association of Petroleum Geologists.

Robinson, A. G., Rudat, J. H., Banks, C. J., Wiles, R. L. F. Petroleum geology of the Black Sea. Marine and Petroleum Geology. 13. 2. 195—223. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-8172(95)00042-9.

Sakellariou, D., Rousakis, G., Vougioukalakis, G., Ioakim, Ch., Panagiotopoulos, I., Morfi, I., Zimianitis, E., Athanasoulis, K., Tsampouraki-Kraounaki, K., Mpardis, D., and Karageorgis, A. P. (2016). Deformation pattern in the Western North Aegean Trough: preliminary results. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece. L. 124—133. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress. Thessaloniki.

Săndulescu, M. (1984). Geotectonics of Romania. Bucharest. Technical Publishing House. (in Romanian).

Sedlerova, O. V. (2015). Geological interpretation of the data integration multispectral satellite imagery and geological and geophysical data for predict oil and gas zones at the regional level (in the exemple of the north west shelf of the Black Sea). Ukrainian Journal of Earth Remote Sensing. 7. 47—57. Access to the journal: http // ujrs.org.ua. (in Russian).

Sengör, A. M. C., Grall, C., Imren, C., Le Pichon, X., Görür, N., Henr,y P., Karabulut, H., and Siyako, M. (2014). The geometry of the North Anatolian transform fault in the Sea of Marmara and its temporal evolution: implications for the development of intracontinental transform faults. Can. J. Earth Sci. 51. 222—242. dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjes-2013-0160.

Skaryatin, V. D., Atanasyan, S. V. (1976). Linear and ring structures of some regions of Eurasia. Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka. 11. 135—148. (in Russian).

Sollogub, V. B., Chekunov, A. V. (1980). Deep structure of the Central and Southeastern parts of the European continent and the problems of complex study of the lithosphere. In Tectonosphere of Ukraine and other regions of the USSR. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 6—17. (in Russian).

Starostenko, V. I., Gintov, O. B., Kutas, R. I. (2011). Geodynamic development of the lithosphere of Ukraine and its role in the formation and distribution of minerals. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal. 3 (33). 3—22. (in Russian).

Starostenko, V. I., Makarenko, I. B., Rusakov, O. M., Pashkevich, I. K., Kutas, R. I., Legostaeva, O. V. (2010). Geophysical heterogeneities of the lithosphere of the Black Sea megadepression. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal. 5 (32). 3—21. (in Russian).

Stupka, O. S. (1967). Deep faults of the Crimean Peninsula. In Geology and oil and gas potential of the Black Sea depression. Kiev: Naukova Dumka. 23—36. (in Russian).

Sugan, M., Wu, J. E. L. and McClay, K. (2014). 3d analogue modelling of transtensional pull-apart basins: comparison with the Cinarik basin, Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata. 55. 4. 699—716.

Tectonic structures of Central and Southeastern Europe based on space survey materials. Explanatory note to the Cosmotectonic map of the European CMEA member countries and the SFRY on a scale of 1: 1,000,000. Chief Editor N. V. Mezhelovsky. Moscow: 1987. (in Russian).

Tranos, M. D. (2009). Faulting of Lemnos Island; a mirror of faulting of the North Aegean Trough (Northern Greece) Tectonophysics. 467. 1—4. 72—88. DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2008.12.018.

Trifonov, V. G., Dodonov, A. E., Bachmanov, D. M., Ivanova, T. P., Karakhanyan...Yusef, A. (2012). Neotectonics, modern geodynamics and seismic hazard in Syria. Trudy geologicheskogo instituta Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. 598. Moscow: GEOS. (in Russian).

Tugolesov, D. A., Gorshkov, A. S., Meisner, L. B., Soloviev, V. V., Khakhalev, E. M. (1985). Tectonics of Meso-Cenozoic deposits of the Black Sea basin. Moscow: Nedra. (in Russian).

Vangelov, D., Gerdjikov, Y., Kounov, A., Lazarova, A. (2013). The Balkan Fold-Thrust Belt: an overview of the main features. Geologica Balcanica. 42. 1—3. 29—47. DOI: 10.5451/unibas-ep58792.

Verkhovtsev, V. G. (2010). The newest tectonics of the Western (Predobruzhsky) segment of the Scythian plate and adjacent territories. Geofizicheskiy zhurnal. 3 (32). 29—42. (in Russian).

Volozh, Yu. A., Antipov, M. P., Leonov, Yu. G., Morozov, A. F., Yurov, Yu. A. (1999). The structure of the Karpinsky ridge. Geotektonika. 1. 28—43 (in Russian)

Volozh, Yu. A., Dmitrievsky, A. N., Leonov, Yu. G., Miletenko, N. V., Rovnin, L. I. (2009). On the strategy of the next stage of oil exploration in the Caspian oil and gas province. Geologiya i geofizika. 4 (50). 341—362 (in Russian)

Yaltirak, C. (2002). Tectonic evolution of the Marmara Sea and its surroundings. Marine Geology. 190. 493—530. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-3227(02)00360-2.

Zagorchev, I. (1992). Neotectonics of the central parts of Balkan Peninsula: basic features and concepts. Geologische Rundschau. 81 (3). 635—654.

Zagorchev, I. (2006 а). Geodetic measurements, neotectonics and recent tectonics in SW Bulgaria. Geodesy (Висша геодезия). 17. 3—14.

Zagorchev, I. (2006 в). Kraishtides (Kraištiden) 70 years later: Myth or Reality? Geologica Balcanica. 35. 3—4. 63—90.

Zankevich, B. A., Pokalyuk, V. V. (2020). About the structure of the Black Sea basin as a hierarchical system of megapull-apart. Tektonika i stratigrafiya. 47. 5—29. (in Russian).

Zankevich, B. A., Shafranskaya, N. V. (2009). Tectonic position of the gas torch zone in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. Geologiya i poleznyye iskopayemyye mirovogo okeana. 3. 35—54. (in Russian).

Section
Earth observation data applications: Challenges and tasks