Main characteristics and perspectives of development of laser gyroscopes

  • Sofiia Alpert Scientific Centre for Aerospace Research of the Earth of the Institute of Geological Sciences of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Oles Honchar st, 55-B, 01054, Kyiv, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7284-6502
Keywords: laser gyroscope, Sagnac effect, unmanned aerial vehicle, remote sensing

Abstract

Nowadays unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) are applied for solution numerous remote sensing tasks. They give a new opportunites for conducting environmental monitoring and give images with a very high resolution.
Unmanned aerial vehicles are applied for solution numerous agricultural problems. They give a detail picture of fields. Unmanned aerial vehicles are used to help increase crop production. With technology constantly improving, imaging of the crops will need to improve as well.
Digital images obtained by unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) can be used in forestry, they are used for environmental monitoring, plant health assessment and analysis of natural disasters. Unmanned aerial vehicles are also used for mining, they are applied for mapping deposit sites, exploring for oil and gas, surveying mines.
Laser gyroscope is an essential component of a drones flight control system. Laser gyroscopes provides orientation control of drone and essential navigation information to the central flight control systems. Laser gyroscopes provide navigation information to the flight controller, which make drones easier and safer to fly. Laser gyroscope is one of the most important components, allowing the drone to fly smooth even in strong winds. The smooth flight capabilities allows us to get images with high precision.
Nowadays the main function of gyroscope technologies is to improve the unmanned aerial vehicles flight capabilities. It was described a structure and main characteristics of laser gyroscopes. It was noted, that laser gyroscope is operated on the principle of the Sagnac effect. Sagnac effect is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation. It were described main advantages and disadvantages of laser gyroscopes. A comparative analysis of mechanical and laser gyroscopes was carried out too.
It also was noted, that laser gyroscopes are applied in different areas, such as: inertial navigation systems, aircraft, ships, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) and satellites. Nowadays laser technology is developed further. There are all prerequisites for improving the precision and other technical characteristics of laser gyroscopes.

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Section
Techniques for Earth observation data acquisition, processing and interpretation